Trenching is a form of primary breaking in which a narrow trench is excavated especially for laying pipes, cables or for installing drainage
Hydraulic excavators have largely replaced cranes with wrecking balls, enabling demolition to be carried out in a much more controlled and efficient manner.
Scaling is removal of loose material from the tunnel roof and walls to prevent accidents by falling rocks.
Tunneling with a hydraulic hammer is similar to primary breaking. It is useful in weathered rock conditions.
Hammer fitted to an excavator working directly in a bench to breaks away rock which can then be removed by truck. This is most commonly used where blasting is not allowed.
When blasted rock is too big for the feeder or crusher, secondary breaking is needed to get the boulders down to size. The type of rock dictates the effectiveness of the process, with brittle rock giving the best performance.
The metallurgical industries can be broadly divided into primary, secondary, and miscellaneous metal production operations.