Trenching is a form of primary breaking in which a narrow trench is excavated especially for laying pipes, cables or for installing drainage
Crushing is used for mechanical size reduction of feed material. A number of different crusher types may be used
Scaling is removal of loose material from the tunnel roof and walls to prevent accidents by falling rocks.
Hammer fitted to an excavator working directly in a bench to breaks away rock which can then be removed by truck. This is most commonly used where blasting is not allowed.
Productivity can only be maintained with the right support.