Hammer fitted to an excavator working directly in a bench to breaks away rock which can then be removed by truck. This is most commonly used where blasting is not allowed.
When blasted rock is too big for the feeder or crusher, secondary breaking is needed to get the boulders down to size. The type of rock dictates the effectiveness of the process, with brittle rock giving the best performance.
The metallurgical industries can be broadly divided into primary, secondary, and miscellaneous metal production operations.